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Cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions, by visualizing the blood vessels and chambers of the heart.


During cardiac catheterization, a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or wrist and threaded to the heart. This catheter, allows for diagnostic tests or treatments, such as coronary angioplasty. Usually, the patient will be awake during cardiac catheterization, but will be given medications to promote relaxation. The patient may request to be asleep for the exam. It is usually possible to return to work and drive the following day.


Cardiac rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation is a customized program of lifestyle changes that includes: exercise, diet and education. Cardiac rehabilitation is designed to help a patient recover from the following: a heart attack, other forms of heart disease, or surgery to treat heart disease. The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are to: help a patient regain strength, prevent his/her condition from worsening, and reduce the risk of future heart problems. Rehabilitation from certain cardiac conditions (such as stents or bypass surgery) are covered by insurances companies.

Cardioversion (electrical or DC)

A procedure by which an abnormal heart rhythm is converted to a normal rhythm. This is a same day hospital procedure. The patient is asleep and the procedure takes minutes. The patient can return to normal activities the same day. Anticoagulation (blood thinner) must be taken before this is done.

Carotid stenosis

A narrowing of the carotid artery usually by atherosclerosis. Cartoid stenosis may lead to TIA's or stroke. This diagnosis is made by the following screening methods: ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or angiography. Symptoms include: visual disturbance, weakness or tingling on one side of the body, or speech abnormalities. Pain is not typical.


Carotid ultrasound

A noninvasive technique to assess for carotid stenosis. It can be done in the doctors office.


Carotid (ka-ROT-id) ultrasound is a painless and harmless test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of the insides of your carotid arteries. You have two common carotid arteries, one on each side of your neck. They each divide into internal and external carotid arteries. The internal carotid arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain. The external carotid arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your face, scalp, and neck.


Cholesterol

In elevated quantities, cholesterol may lead to deposition of plaque in the arteries, narrowing the space for blood to flow. Total cholesterol consists of: LDL,HDL, and triglycerides. Diet, exercise, age, and genetics all contribute to cholesterol levels. There are both bad and good cholesterol particles. The larger particles are safer then the smaller ones. There is currently a blood test (VAP) that can help to more accurately measure a patient’s cholesterol levels. High cholesterol has been shown to increase all cardiovascular disease states.


Claudication

Refers to pain in the legs, caused by decreased blood flow, that occurs during walking and is relieved with rest.ccClaudication may be due to peripheral arterial disease. Arterial flow studies (noninvasive) and angiography can make this diagnosis. Both Cardiologists and Vascular surgeons can treat this disorder.


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